BVV™ High Purity Lab Grade N-Pentane 99%

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BVV™ High Purity Lab Grade N-Pentane 99%

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BVV™ High Purity Lab Grade n-Pentane 99% is a hydrocarbon that has properties that are similar to butanes and hexanes. Pentane is a non-polar solvent and refrigerant. Pentane is used for the extraction and eluting of distillates, concentrates, volatiles, and essential oils from plant materials. Pentane can be used with hydrocarbon extraction systems that extract herbal oils, botanical compounds and oils from plants. It is a colorless liquid and has a petroleum-like odor. 

 

 

What Is N-Pentane?

N-Pentane, also known as normal pentane, is a straight-chain alkane hydrocarbon with the molecular formula C5H12. It is one of the isomers of pentane, a hydrocarbon that consists of five carbon atoms bonded together in a linear, unbranched chain. n-Pentane is called "normal" because its carbon atoms are arranged in a continuous, straight chain, without any branching.

What Are The Properties Of N-Pentane?

Here are some of the key properties of n-pentane:

  1. Physical State: At room temperature and standard atmospheric pressure, n-pentane is a colorless, clear, and highly flammable liquid.

  2. Odor: It has a gasoline-like or organic solvent-like odor.

  3. Boiling Point: The boiling point of n-pentane is approximately 36.1 degrees Celsius (97 degrees Fahrenheit). This relatively low boiling point makes it useful in various applications.

  4. Density: The density of n-pentane at room temperature is about 0.626 grams per milliliter (g/mL). It is less dense than water, which has a density of 1 g/mL.

  5. Solubility: n-Pentane is sparingly soluble in water, which means it does not readily mix with water. This is because it is a nonpolar compound, and water is a polar solvent. However, it is highly soluble in nonpolar solvents and organic compounds.

  6. Flammability: n-Pentane is highly flammable and poses a fire hazard. It has a low flash point and can easily ignite when exposed to an open flame or heat source.

  7. Vapor Pressure: It has a relatively high vapor pressure at room temperature, meaning it readily evaporates into the air.

  8. Chemical Structure: As a straight-chain alkane, n-pentane consists of five carbon atoms bonded together in a linear fashion, with 12 hydrogen atoms bonded to these carbons.

  9. Molar Mass: The molar mass of n-pentane is approximately 72.15 grams per mole (g/mol).

  10. Reactivity: n-Pentane is relatively unreactive under normal conditions and does not readily undergo chemical reactions with common reagents.

  11. Uses: It is used as a laboratory solvent, industrial solvent, component in fuel blends, foam blowing agent, and as a chemical reagent in various applications.

  12. Safety Precautions: Due to its high flammability, proper safety precautions should be taken when handling n-pentane. It should be stored away from open flames, sparks, and heat sources.

  13. Environmental Impact: Like other hydrocarbons, the combustion of n-pentane releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change.

n-Pentane is commonly employed in laboratory and industrial settings as a solvent, and its physical and chemical properties make it suitable for various applications. However, its flammability requires careful handling and storage to prevent accidents.

What Is The Difference between N-Pentane and ISO-Pentane?

n-Pentane and isopentane are two different structural isomers of pentane, each with distinct molecular arrangements. Here are the key differences between n-pentane and isopentane:

  1. Structural Arrangement:

    • n-Pentane (Normal Pentane): n-Pentane has a linear, straight-chain structure with five carbon atoms connected in a continuous, unbranched chain. It is sometimes referred to as "normal" pentane due to its unbranched structure.

    • Isopentane (2-Methylbutane): Isopentane has a branched-chain structure with one methyl (CH3) group branching off from the second carbon atom (C2) of the main carbon chain. This branching gives it its common name, "isopentane."

  2. Physical Properties:

    • n-Pentane: n-Pentane is a clear, colorless liquid at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. It has a higher boiling point than isopentane and is less volatile.

    • Isopentane: Isopentane is also a clear, colorless liquid at room temperature, but it has a lower boiling point compared to n-pentane. It is more volatile and evaporates more easily.

  3. Boiling Points:

    • n-Pentane: The boiling point of n-pentane is approximately 36.1 degrees Celsius (97 degrees Fahrenheit).

    • Isopentane: The boiling point of isopentane is lower, at approximately -11.7 degrees Celsius (11 degrees Fahrenheit). This lower boiling point makes it more suitable for certain applications.

  4. Applications:

    • n-Pentane: n-Pentane is used as a laboratory solvent, in the formulation of industrial solvents, and as a component in gasoline and other fuels. Its relatively higher boiling point makes it less volatile and suitable for some applications where slow evaporation is desired.

    • Isopentane: Isopentane is commonly used as a refrigerant and as a component in aerosol propellants, blowing agents for foam production, and as a solvent. Its lower boiling point and greater volatility make it useful in these applications.

In summary, n-pentane and isopentane differ in their molecular structures, physical properties, boiling points, and applications. The choice between the two depends on the specific requirements of a given application, with n-pentane being less volatile and isopentane being more volatile.

What Is The Structure Of N-Pentane?

Pentane is an alkane with the chemical formula C5H12. It is a colorless, flammable liquid that is commonly used as a solvent and a fuel. The structure of pentane is a straight chain of five carbon atoms, with each carbon atom bonded to four hydrogen atoms. The carbon atoms in pentane are arranged in a tetrahedral geometry, with each carbon atom forming four bonds with other atoms. The hydrogen atoms are bonded to the carbon atoms in a single bond.

What is the chemical structure of pentane? - Quora

 

What Is Pentane Used For?

Pentane, both in its various isomeric forms (n-pentane and isopentane), has several industrial and commercial applications due to its properties as a hydrocarbon solvent and fuel component. Here are some common uses of pentane:

  1. Solvent: Pentane is used as a nonpolar solvent in various laboratory and industrial applications. It is particularly useful for dissolving oils, fats, waxes, and some organic compounds. Its low boiling point and relatively low toxicity make it suitable for these purposes.

  2. Foam Blowing Agent: Isopentane (also known as 2-methylbutane) is often used as a blowing agent in the production of polyurethane foams. When mixed with other chemicals, isopentane vaporizes and creates bubbles within the foam, leading to its expansion and formation.

  3. Fuel Component: Pentane, primarily in the form of isopentane, is used as a component in gasoline and other fuel blends. It enhances the octane rating of gasoline and helps reduce engine knocking, improving engine performance.

  4. Chemical Reagent: Pentane can serve as a chemical reagent in organic synthesis and research. It may be used as a reactant in some chemical reactions or as a medium for certain processes.

  5. Extraction: In laboratories, pentane is utilized for liquid-liquid extractions to separate compounds from mixtures based on differences in solubility. It is a common choice for extracting natural products and essential oils.

  6. Cleaning Agent: Pentane is employed for cleaning and degreasing purposes in industrial settings. It can effectively remove residues, contaminants, and oils from various surfaces and equipment.

  7. Refrigeration: Pentane has been used as a refrigerant in some applications, particularly in the form of isopentane. However, due to environmental concerns and regulations related to ozone depletion, its use as a refrigerant has diminished.

  8. Analytical Chemistry: In gas chromatography (GC), pentane is sometimes used as a carrier gas to transport samples through the GC column for analysis.

  9. Adhesives and Sealants: Some adhesive and sealant formulations may contain pentane as a solvent or propellant.

  10. Aerosol Propellants: Pentane, particularly isopentane, has been used as a propellant in aerosol spray products.

  11. Energy Production: In certain regions, pentane may be used as a fuel for heating and electricity generation, although this application is less common.

It's important to note that while pentane has various industrial and commercial uses, safety precautions should be taken when handling it due to its flammable nature. Proper storage, ventilation, and safety measures are essential to minimize the risk of accidents. Additionally, environmental regulations and concerns have led to the exploration of alternative substances in some applications where pentane was traditionally used as a refrigerant or propellant.

How Is Pentane Produced?

Pentane is typically produced from petroleum through refining processes. It is a natural component of crude oil, and the separation and purification of pentane from crude oil involve various refining techniques. Here's an overview of how pentane is produced:

  1. Fractional Distillation: Crude oil is first subjected to fractional distillation in an oil refinery. This process separates the crude oil into different fractions based on their boiling points. Pentane, along with other hydrocarbons of similar boiling points, is separated from the crude oil in this initial distillation step.

  2. Fraction Separation: The fraction obtained in the distillation containing pentane and similar hydrocarbons is further separated in subsequent distillation columns. These columns are designed to separate hydrocarbons with similar boiling points, and pentane is separated from other hydrocarbons through a series of distillation steps.

  3. Purification: After the initial separation, the pentane fraction may still contain impurities and other hydrocarbons. To obtain high-purity pentane, additional purification steps are often employed. One common method is solvent extraction, where selective solvents are used to remove impurities. Adsorption and molecular sieves may also be used for purification.

  4. Final Processing: The purified pentane may undergo additional processing steps to meet specific product specifications or requirements. For example, it may be dried to remove any remaining water content.

  5. Packaging and Distribution: Once purified and processed, pentane is typically packaged into containers suitable for transportation and distribution. It may be distributed to various industries where it is used for its specific applications.

Overall, the production of pentane is part of the larger petroleum refining process, and its availability depends on the composition of the crude oil and the specific refining techniques employed by the refinery.

What Are The Hazards Of Pentane?

Pentane, like other hydrocarbon compounds, poses certain hazards, especially when handled and used in industrial or laboratory settings. It's essential to be aware of these hazards and take appropriate safety precautions when working with pentane. Here are some of the hazards associated with pentane:

  1. Flammable: Pentane is highly flammable and can form explosive mixtures with air when its vapor concentration is within a specific range (approximately 1.5% to 7.8% by volume). This means that even a small spark or open flame can ignite pentane vapors, leading to fires or explosions.

  2. Health Hazards: Inhalation of pentane vapor can cause respiratory irritation, dizziness, headache, nausea, and, in severe cases, central nervous system depression. Prolonged exposure to pentane may lead to adverse health effects, including drowsiness, unconsciousness, and even asphyxiation.

  3. Irritant: Pentane can be a skin and eye irritant. Contact with the skin may cause irritation, redness, and dermatitis, particularly with prolonged or repeated exposure. Eye contact with pentane can result in irritation, redness, and discomfort.

  4. Environmental Impact: Pentane is a volatile organic compound (VOC) that can contribute to air pollution. When released into the atmosphere, it can react with other pollutants and contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, which is harmful to human health and the environment.

  5. Asphyxiation Hazard: Pentane vapors can displace oxygen in poorly ventilated areas, creating an oxygen-deficient atmosphere. This can lead to asphyxiation if pentane is released in a confined space without proper ventilation.

To use pentane safely, consider the following precautions:

  • Work in well-ventilated areas or use exhaust systems to prevent the buildup of pentane vapors.
  • Avoid open flames, sparks, and hot surfaces when working with pentane, and ensure that electrical equipment and wiring are explosion-proof in areas where pentane is used.
  • Store pentane in approved containers away from heat, ignition sources, and incompatible materials.
  • Use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), including safety goggles, gloves, and lab coats, when handling pentane.
  • Have emergency response measures in place, including fire extinguishers and eyewash stations, when working with pentane.
  • Follow safety data sheet (SDS) guidelines and procedures provided by the manufacturer or supplier of pentane.
  • Educate and train personnel on the safe handling and storage of pentane.

It's crucial to have a thorough understanding of the potential hazards associated with pentane and to implement appropriate safety measures to mitigate these risks. Always follow safety guidelines and regulations specific to your workplace or laboratory when working with pentane or any other hazardous chemicals.

How Do I Use Pentane Safely?

Using pentane safely is essential due to its flammable nature and associated hazards. Whether you're working with pentane in a laboratory, industrial setting, or any other environment, following proper safety procedures is crucial. Here are some steps to use pentane safely:

  1. Work in a Well-Ventilated Area:

    • Always work in a properly ventilated area. Ensure that fumes and vapors can be effectively removed to prevent the buildup of pentane in the air.
  2. No Open Flames or Sparks:

    • Avoid working near open flames, sparks, or other potential ignition sources. Pentane is highly flammable and can ignite easily.
  3. Use Appropriate Containers:

    • Store pentane in approved containers designed for flammable liquids. These containers are typically designed to prevent leaks and resist fire.
  4. Keep Away from Heat Sources:

    • Store pentane away from heat sources, including direct sunlight, radiators, and hot surfaces.
  5. Static Electricity:

    • Ground yourself and any equipment that could generate static electricity. This helps prevent static sparks that could ignite pentane vapors.
  6. Wear Protective Gear:

    • Use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), including safety goggles, gloves, and lab coats, to protect your eyes, skin, and clothing from contact with pentane.
  7. No Smoking or Eating:

    • Do not smoke or eat while working with pentane. Keep food and beverages away from the work area.
  8. Emergency Equipment:

    • Have safety equipment on hand, such as fire extinguishers, eyewash stations, and safety showers, in case of accidents or emergencies.
  9. Avoid Confined Spaces:

    • Do not use pentane in confined spaces without proper ventilation. Pentane vapors can displace oxygen, leading to an oxygen-deficient atmosphere.
  10. Secure Containers:

    • Ensure that containers are tightly sealed when not in use. Prevent spills and leaks.
  11. Safety Data Sheet (SDS):

    • Familiarize yourself with the safety data sheet (SDS) provided by the manufacturer or supplier of pentane. SDS contains important information about the chemical's properties, hazards, and safe handling procedures.
  12. Training and Education:

    • Train all personnel working with pentane on its safe handling, storage, and disposal. Ensure that they understand the hazards and know how to respond to emergencies.
  13. Labeling and Signage:

    • Clearly label containers of pentane with appropriate warnings and hazard symbols. Use warning signs in areas where pentane is stored or used.
  14. Emergency Response:

    • Develop and communicate emergency response plans, including evacuation procedures and fire safety protocols. Conduct regular drills to ensure that personnel are prepared.
  15. Proper Disposal:

    • Dispose of pentane and any contaminated materials according to local, state, and federal regulations. Do not pour pentane down drains or dispose of it improperly.
  16. Regular Inspections:

    • Periodically inspect equipment, storage areas, and containers for signs of damage or deterioration. Replace damaged equipment or containers promptly.

By following these safety guidelines and practices, you can minimize the risks associated with pentane use and create a safer working environment. Always prioritize safety and be prepared to respond to potential emergencies involving pentane or other flammable chemicals.

 

 

BVV™ High Purity Lab Grade N-Pentane 99%

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